Obstructed labor, also known as labor dystocia, is when, even though the uterus is contracting normally, the baby does not exit the pelvis during childbirth due to being physically blocked. Complications for the baby include not getting enough oxygen which may result in death. It increases the risk of the mother getting an infection, having uterine rupture, or having post-partum bleeding. Long term complications for the mother include obstetrical fistula. Obstructed labor is said to result in prolonged labor, when the active phase of labor is longer than twelve hours.
The main causes of obstructed labor include: a large or abnormally positioned baby, a small pelvis, and problems with the birth canal. Abnormal positioning includes shoulder dystocia were the anterior shoulder does not pass easily below the pubic bone. Risk factors for a small pelvis include malnutrition and a lack of exposure to sunlight causing vitamin D deficiency. It is also more common in adolescence as the pelvis may not have finished growing. Problems with the birth canal include a narrow vagina and perineum which may be due to female genital mutilation or tumors. A partograph is often used to track labor progression and diagnose problems. This combined with physical examination may identify obstructed labor.
The treatment of obstructed labor may require cesarean section or vacuum extraction with possible surgical opening of the symphysis pubis. Other measures include: keeping the women hydrated and antibiotics if the membranes have been ruptured for more than 18 hours. In Africa and Asia obstructed labor effects between two and five percent of deliveries.
Obstructed labor. (2016, September 30). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 02:45, September 30, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Obstructed_labour&oldid=741857423